It is always best to use the specific ingredients that are called for in a recipe. However, in some cases you can use substitutions. Some of the more common ones are listed below. Be aware that using substitutions may vary the texture or flavor of a recipe, therefore you should only use substitutions when absolutely necessary.




1 Tsp. baking powder

1/2 Tsp. baking soda plus 1/2 Tsp. cream of tarter

1 pkg. active dry yeast

1 Tbsp. dry or 1 cake compressed yeast, crumbled

1 cup honey

1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid, or 1 cup molasses

1 cup corn syrup

1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water

1 cup cake flour

1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 Tbsp.

All-purpose flour

An equal amount of whole wheat flour can be substituted in some breads, cookies and bars; texture will be coarser

1 whole egg

For custards and puddings, 2 egg yolks, for cookies and bars, 2 egg yolks plus 1 Tbsp. water; liquid egg substitutes may sometimes be used

Dairy Products

1 cup whole milk

1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water, or 1 cup nonfat milk or reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 Tsp. butter or oil

1 cup buttermilk or sour milk

1 Tbsp. cider vinegar or lemon juice plus enough milk to equal 1 cup, let stand 5 minutes

1 cup dairy sour cream

1 cup plain yogurt, or 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 Tbsp. vinegar, or 1 cup cottage cheese mixed in blender with 2 Tbsp. milk and 1 Tbsp. lemon juice

1 cup half and half

7/8 cup milk plus 3 Tbsp.s margarine or butter, or 1 cup evaporated milk

1 cup plain yogurt

1 cup sour milk or 1 cup buttermilk


1 ounce (1 square) unsweetened chocolate

3 Tbsp. cocoa powder plus 1 Tbsp. shortening or margarine

1 ounce (1 square) semisweet chocolate

1 square unsweetened chocolate plus 1 Tbsp. sugar, or 3 Tbsp. semisweet chocolate pieces

1/2 cup semisweet chocolate pieces for melting

3 ounces (3 squares) semisweet chocolate